standards, protocols, hardware interfacing and modules

Standards

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications)

  • SMS (Short Message Service)
    • 160 charachters
  • GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)
    • 2G GSM : 9.6 Kb/s or multiples with HSCSD
    • 2.5G GPRS: 52 Kb/s with EDGE 128 Kb/s
    • 3G UMTS: 384 Kb/s (max 2Mbits/s)
    • 3.5G HSDPA up to 14Mbps
    • 4G LTE up to 100Mbps

USB (Universal Serial Bus)

  • Used to connect peripherals to a host
  • Variety of device classes, amongst which HID (Human Input Device), CDC (Communications Device Class)
  • speeds
    • USB 1.0: 1,5 Mbit/s (low speed)
    • USB 1.1: 12 Mbit/s (full speed)
    • USB 2.0: 480 Mbit/s (high speed)

WLAN (Wireless LAN or IEEE 802.11)

  • standards carrying out wireless local area network computer communication
  • protocol classes:
    • 802.11b 11Mbit/s, up to 38 meter
    • 802.11g 54Mbit/s, up to 100 meter
    • 802.11n 600Mbit/s, up to 300 meter

Protocols

Bluetooth

  • cable replacement (with RFCOMM)
  • covers 10cm to 100m
  • speed up to 3Mbit/s for version 2.0 + EDR
  • device can support several profiles like OPP (Object Push Profile)
  • Service discovery
  • star network topology
  • max 7 (active) clients connected to 1 host

Zigbee

(communication protocol suite for wireless personal area networks (WPAN))

  • Low power
  • Used for device to device communication (sensor networks, home automation)
  • 10 to 75 meters, 1500 meters for ZigBee pro
  • speed dependent on frequency band
    • 250 kb/s (2.4 GHz)
      40 kb/s (915 MHz)
      20 kb/s (868 MHz)
  • star, p2p mesh and tree network topology

Hardware interfacing

UART:
(universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter)

  • used as very generic hardware interface
  • dataformat: serial (bit by bit)
  • by adding one chip, RS232 can be made (the old serial port)
  • mainly used as link between two hardware devices
  • consists of minimum 2 lines: Tx (transmit) and Rx (Receive)
  • master and slave have to be initialized with same baudrate
  • 8bit transmission (bytes)
  • Almost all microcontrollers have an onboard UART
  • A lot of peripheral hardware can be connected using the UART
  • transmission speed 2400 bits per second up to 1 Mbit per second
  • By adding one chip, RS485 can be made (balanced signal for long cable runs, example DMX)
  • available on Arduino

SPI:
(Serial peripheral Interface Bus)

  • used as very generic hardware interface
  • dataformat: serial (bit by bit)
  • mainly used as a link between two chips (IC’s)
  • consists of minimum 3 lines (data IN, data OUT, clock)
  • Master controls the clock
  • mainly 8bit transmission
  • a lot of microcontrollers have an onboard SPI module
  • a lot of chips are available having SPI control
  • multiple slave using chip select lines
  • transmission speed 1Mbit
  • available on Arduino

I2C:
(inter – integrated circuit)

  • used as very generic hardware interface
  • dataformat: serial (bit by bit)
  • only used as a link between two chips (IC’s)
  • consists of 2 lines (data, clock)
  • Master controls the clock
  • dataline is bidirectional
  • 8bit or 10bit transmission
  • max 128 slaves
  • 3 speedmodes: 100kbit/sec , 400kbit/sec , 1Mbit/sec
  • a lot of chips are available having I2C control
  • slightly more difficult to implement than SPI

Modules

Glyn EVBQ26 series

http://www.glyn.de/content.asp?wdid=459&sid=00000024725E5C515B514A615650474B

  • GSM
  • GPRS
  • USB
  • UART

AarLogic family

http://www.roundsolutions.com/aarlogic/index.htm

  • GSM
  • GPRS
  • GPS
  • UART
  • USB
  • SPI
  • I2C

Openmoko

http://www.openmoko.com/product.html

  • GSM
  • GPRS
  • AGPS
  • Bluetooth
  • WiFi

ARDUINO

http://www.arduino.cc

Gumstix

http://gumstix.com/store/catalog/product_info.php?cPath=27&products_id=206

LPRS

http://www.lprs.co.uk/index.php?cPath=21
  • fm radio for serial communications (UART)

RFID

http://www.sparkfun.com/commerce/product_info.php?products_id=8709

  • RFID (125kHz)
  • UART

ARToolkit

http://www.hitl.washington.edu/artoolkit/

  • camera based marker tracking
Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: